Data are from the cps outgoing rotation group cpsorg samples for selected years from 1984 through 2004. Also, in some tribal communities, it is a tradition to have many children. Health consequences of child marriage in africa volume 12. Child marriage effectively ends a girls childhood, curtails her education, minimizes her economic opportunities, increases her risk of domestic violence, and puts her at risk for early, frequent, and very highrisk pregnancies. In other words, 1 in 3 girls in lowerincome countries will be married before the age of 18. Jun 29, 2017 a similar conclusion is reached when modelling the relationship between child marriage and educational attainment econometrically. Maternal child marriage was also associated with malnutrition indicators for children under 5 years. A perspective article pdf available in international journal of scientific and engineering research 77. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility.
The study had the general objective of identifying the causes and consequences of divorce after child. Children of women married as minors were significantly more likely to have stunting or 1. Many laws throughout the world have banned child marriage and the sexual exploitation of children. The changing impact of marriage and children on womens. Associations between maternal child marriage and being. Families in poverty usually feel they have no alternative to child marriage. In certain cultures, marrying a girl young presumes that the girls sexuality, therefore the girls familys honor, will be protected by ensuring that the girl. People who wed young also face domestic violence and other types of abuse within a marriage, according to childinfo. The devastating impact of child marriage on girls around. Early motherhood is one of the most adverse effects of child marriage and often leads to the death of the young mother during child birth. Child marriage when an individual is married before the age of 18 impacts 15 million girls each year, or 41,000 girls every day in lowerincome countries. In certain cultures, marrying a girl young presumes that the girls sexuality, therefore the girls. The analysis also looks more carefully at race and ageofchild effects. If the present trend continues, 100 million girls will marry over the next decade.
Some as young as 8 or 9 are forced to trade their childhoods for a life that can be defined by isolation, violence and illness. Numerous studies have been conducted along these lines, and the scientific findings of the effects of marriage on health have been very revealing and surprising in some instances. Our findings indicate that the causes of child marriage in nigeria include economic, sociocultural and religious factors. The impact of early marriage taking action the need for research in conclusion links references innocenti digest no. In simple terms, child marriage is the marriage of a person aged before majority. This harmful practice can expose girls to violence, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, denying them their basic rights to childhood, with damaging impact on their. Samanga a ward in honde valley, the issue of early girlchild marriage has reached an alarming level and the effects are just serious such that there is need to intervene in order to rescue the girlchild from further abuse as a.
Research synthesis the effects of divorce on children. The devastating impact of child marriage on girls around the. Causes and effects of child marriage in nigeria research. How useful are the demographic surveys in explaining the determinants of early marriage of girls in the. A qualitative study on the causes and consequences of divorce. Child spouses in 2001, exploring both the reasons behind the perpetuation of child marriage and its harmful impact. The facts on child marriage international womens health. Effect of child marriage on girls school dropout in nepal.
Causes and effects of child marriage in nigeria research cyber. Because of the forfeited education, poverty and increased stress resulting from child marriage, women in the u. Child marriage, defined as marriage of a child under 18 years of age, is a silent and yet widespread practice. Child brides face huge challenges because they are married as children. Effects of early girl child marriage young girls may endure misery as a result of early marriage and he number of those who would seek help, if they though it existed, is possible to calculate. In despite of all attention drawn to child marriage across the world, there is a lack of improvement. Rates are 17% in the middle east and north africa, and 11% in eastern europe and central asia. There is an intricate connection between marriage and health.
Original article differential effects of young maternal. The younger a girl is, the more children she can give birth to. Hindrance to the educational aspect of the girl child. Child marriage essay introduction causes impact imp days. Health consequences of child marriage in africa ncbi. Young adults may endure misery as a result of early marriage. Although child marriage affects all girls, those with less education, living in rural areas, and in the lower wealth quintiles are more susceptible than those with higher education, living in urban areas, and in the higher wealth quintiles. Dowry the money the brides family pays to the groom is a big factor in child marriage. High population raises the poverty level of the family. Today, over 60 million marriages include girls under the age of 18 years. For a nation which is touted to be the next emerging superpower nation, it is a disturbing reality that evils like child marriages still persist. It is both a symptom and a cause of ongoing development challenges, as the practice of child marriage further contributes to. Child marriage is associated with higher rates of sexually transmitted infections.
Child marriage is an end of the girl childs childhood. See effects of divorce on childrens education and effects of family structure on childrens education. Amato, the consequences of divorce for adults and children, journal of marriage. Background the steady upward trend in the labor force activity of mar. Among girls growing up in south asia, 30% experience early marriage, compared with 25% in latin america and the caribbean. Health issues as giving birth at an early age is harmful for the girls health. School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. A large part of the impact of child marriage on total fertility comes from the fact that women marrying earlier tend to have children earlier. However, supply side issues such as poor access to school, low quality of educational provision, and poor skilled employment prospects, as well as effect of child marriage on girls school dropout in nepal.
It is mostly in south asia, africa, and latin america. Early child marriage in nigeria child marriage customs, a situation whereby children are given into marriage well before they attain puberty occur all over the world particularly in africa, asia, and south america. Furthermore, some of these social structures give preference to boys as to the. The object of this research is to look into under what circumstances child marriage does exist and how girls living conditions can be improved. We assessed the prevalence of child marriageie, before 18 years of agein young adult women in india, and the associations between child marriage and womens fertility and fertilitycontrol outcomes. The sparse evidence from low and middleincome countries suggests a negative association between child marriage and mental health outcomes. Economic impacts of child marriage world bank documents. The digest provides guidelines towards ending the practice of child marriage through changing attitudes within families and societies, expanding opportunities for education, offering appropriate support to. Until more is known about their situation there can be no reliable estimates of the scale of their predicament, or of the social damage that is carried forward. P ositive and negative effects of marriage vary d epending on whether you are happily married or unhappily married numerous studies have been conducted along these lines, and the scientific findings of the effects of marriage on health have been very revealing and surprising in some instances. Each day, 25,000 girls are married and an anticipated 100 million girls. We are in the 21 st century when the entire world is developing with each passing second. Child marriage fosters poverty, however, as it ensures that girls who marry young will not be properly educated or take part in the workforce. Pdf the incidence of child marriage is not only in nepal but also in the world.
Girl child marriage remains widespread in india despite implementation of several policies and programmes to eliminate the practice. Methods data this study uses dhs data from 18 lmics. Pdf effects of child marriage on girls education and empowerment. Young girls who become child brides experience negative psychological effects as a result. Early marriage and forced marriage is most common in subsaharan africa where 38% of girls become child brides. Theologians, religious teachers and universitybased. Pdf although convention on the rights of child declared that any marriage of an under 18 child will be considered as child marriage, the. Dec 17, 2019 p ositive and negative effects of marriage vary d epending on whether you are happily married or unhappily married. Too young, mentally and physically to become a mother, early motherhood puts the health of the mother and child in danger. A large part of the impact of child marriage on total fertility comes from the fact that women marrying earlier also tend to have children earlier. This study examines the effects of girls educational attainment and household poverty on the prevalence of female child marriage at the districtlevel in india. Dec 24, 2016 child marriage in india according to a united nations report, india has the second highest number of child marriages. It has a serious negative impact on the life of the child.
Focus shall be put on child marriage in general exemplified in particular by two countries in. Having obtained a bachelors degree or higher is most common among mothers in intact marriages. Some of the causes of early marriage in nigeria include conflict, poverty, religion, and tradition. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls education, health, psychologic wellbeing, and the health of their offspring. House of representatives human rights commissions human rights commission. Effect of child marriage on girls school dropout in nepal plos. Prohibition of child marriage act, 2006 the act includes punitive measures against those who perform, permit and promote child marriage. Child marriage denies the most basic rights like right to education, health and safety to the girls who are subjected to it. The analyses in this study are based on a broader body of work in which a number of aspects of child marriage were explored 11, 12. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school.
In many cases, a mixture of these causes results in the imprisonment of children in marriages without their consent. Jan 08, 2019 early child marriage in nigeria child marriage customs, a situation whereby children are given into marriage well before they attain puberty occur all over the world particularly in africa, asia, and south america. Child marriage, on the other hand, involves either one or both spouses being children. This study identifies the tipping point school grades in nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child. In this article, we explore the causes and effects of child early marriage in nigeria. Effects of education and poverty on the prevalence of girl. Child marriages in india the red elephant foundation december 20 e 4 introduction child marriage refers to the marriage of a child younger than 18 years old,1 in accordance to article 1 of the convention on the right of the child. The causes, consequences and solutions to forced child marriage. People worry that the older a girl is, the more they will have to pay, so they marry girls early. The benefits of marriage for education are also seen in parents and childrens level of education. Invest in whats working child, early and forced marriage has significant negative impacts on the futures of children, particularly girls. Effects of marriage on childrens education marripedia. A qualitative study on the causes and consequences of.
Child marriage is one such effect of the darker side of the society. Positive and negative effects of marriage on your health. It also provides for annulment of a child marriage and gives a separated female the right to maintenance and residence from her husband if he is above 18 or inlaws if he is a minor until she is remarried. Child marriage in india according to a united nations report, india has the second highest number of child marriages. Child spouses this digest focuses on early marriage the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18 from a human rights perspective. Girls offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. Child marriage often occurs in the shadows of poverty and gender inequality, impeding efforts to empower girls and boys and achieve longterm, sustainable development. Child marriage devastating consequences unchained at last.
Children raised in intact married families tend to earn higher grades than those in nonintact families. Below are few of the ways in which child marriage affects the girl child. Pdf effects of child marriage on girls education and. Ending child marriage and meeting the needs of married. Child marriage is a human rights violation that we must end to achieve a better future for all. State department has called marriage before 18 a human rights abuse that produces devastating repercussions for a girls life, effectively ending her childhood. Child marriage is a substantial barrier to social and economic development in india, and a primary concern for womens health. Health consequences of child marriage in africa volume. Isolated and with limited freedom, married girls often feel disempowered. They are deprived of their fundamental rights to health, education and safety. One thing is clear, the impact or effect of early girl child marriage is under ranging. Introduction child marriage refers to any marriage of a child younger than eighteen years old, in accordance to article 1 of the convention of the right of the child. Boys are also affected by child marriage but the issue impacts girls in far larger numbers and with more intensity.
A similar conclusion is reached when modelling the relationship between child marriage and educational attainment econometrically. They may lack the resources to educate their daughters and their society may not offer incentives to protect girls from child marriage. The study had the general objective of identifying. Child marriage deprives girls of educational opportunities. The effects of early marriage among young adults essay cram. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls health. Marriages that are bound by love are satisfying, but allowing a child to marry early has consequences. May 17, 2017 child marriage denies the most basic rights like right to education, health and safety to the girls who are subjected to it.985 704 946 1105 487 672 494 722 1018 903 1396 1294 1286 638 1468 429 729 534 67 1234 1389 54 150 81 475 750 905 1231 71 1222 1615 1452 285 1388 1427 569 32 137 657 427 1257 198 93 1173